Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Too Real, or Too Fake?

Female Instagram Influencers in ‘Authenticity Bind’

 

 ITHACA, N.Y. – Female Instagram influencers – whose livelihoods depend on their ability to build and maintain a prominent social media following – endure criticism and harassment both for being too real and for seeming too fake, according to a new study from Cornell University. 

This leaves women on Instagram caught in an “authenticity bind” – the nature of social media compels them to share details from their personal lives, but these details make them vulnerable to abuse or charges that they’ve ‘curated’ or faked their online personas.
“Across social networks, content creators are compelled to be authentic and ‘real’ but in ways that are quite narrowly defined,”said Brooke Erin Duffy, assistant professor of communication and co-author of the study. “If they’re deemed too real, if they express inner thoughts that seem too personal or intimate, they may face criticism. But if they aren’t considered real enough, if audiences view them as highly curated or excessively performative, or so aspirational that they are unrelatable, they experience blowback. Essentially a woman on social media, especially one with a large following, can’t win.”

Research has found harassment on Instagram can be common, particularly among those with a significant social media presence. And abuse is more prevalent – and potentially more harmful – for women and people from marginalized communities.
Yet few controls and restrictions exist on Instagram, leaving harassment victims particularly helpless when the success of their businesses depends on social media prominence, Duffy said.
For the study, Duffy and co-author Emily Hund of the University of Pennsylvania interviewed 25 professional or aspiring female Instagrammers in the areas of fashion, beauty and lifestyle. They found the women tended to censor themselves in anticipation of criticism.
Women also said they noticed viewers were more engaged with posts confiding personal or private information about their lives, but they also said they felt reluctant to share anything “that’s not elevated and inspirational/aspirational.”

Duffy said she hopes the study calls attention to the lack of safeguards for female Instagram influencers, whose challenges are often disdained by a skeptical public.
The study, “Gendered Visibility on Social Media: Navigating Instagram’s Authenticity Bind,” was published in the International Journal of Communication.
For more information, see this Cornell Chronicle story.
Cornell University has dedicated television and audio studios available for media interviews supporting full HD, ISDN and web-based platforms.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Does Crime Really Rise During a Full Moon?

      

Photo by Thomas Brenac

 

 

 


 

New York University researchers looked into it, just in time for Halloween. 



Just in time for Halloween, the BetaGov team at NYU's Marron Institute of Urban Management is releasing a three-country study on the "lunar effect."

Betagov, which carries out randomized controlled trials for, and collaborates with, stakeholders in the field, looked into the purported relationship between crime and the full moon. The investigation resulted from a conversation with a police official in Vallejo, CA, and an article on the phenomenon he pointed out from Australia.

To start out, BetaGov researchers conducted a review of the overall research literature on the "lunar effect," which, surprisingly, is mixed. Some studies have found evidence of a lunar effect on crime and negative behavior, and others show none at all.

The Vallejo police official, meanwhile, pulled together his agency's crime data from January 2014 through May 2018. He researched phases of the moon for each crime event, and sent BetaGov his data for analysis. According to the analysis, the data demonstrated that there's no association between crime events and full moon. In Vallejo, California, at least, people don't commit more crimes when there is a full moon.

Other police departments heard about this analysis and were curious whether there was evidence for the lunar hypothesis in their own data. To make sure North America was represented, BetaGov teed up replication studies with the Barrie (Ontario) Police Service in Canada and the Irapuato Citizen Safety Secretariat in Mexico. The team merged moon-phase data into their calls-for-service and crime data.

What was found? Again, nothing.

"Although these kinds of analyses are fun, the findings have practical implications for policing such as in developing staffing assignments and distribution of other law-enforcement resources. The bottom line is be vigilant in questioning your assumptions and use your data to explore. It might just surprise you," said BetaGov director Angela Hawken (PhD), a professor of public policy at the NYU Marron Institute.

To see the individual research briefs, or to speak with Dr. Hawken, please contact NYU public affairs officer Robert Polner at robert.polner(at)nyu.edu .


ABOUT BETAGOV: Our team includes psychologists, economists, policy experts, clinical researchers, statisticians, and consultants with decades of experience planning and conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and collaborating with stakeholders in the field. Supported initially by funding from Give Well and Good Ventures, and by subsequent funding from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation and the Smith Richardson Foundation, our services are provided at no cost. Visit http://betagov.org/index.html



Friday, November 8, 2019

The Iceman

Credit: Dickson et al, 2019

FrozeBuried alongside the famous Ötzi the Iceman are at least 75 species of bryophytes – mosses and liverworts – which hold clues to Ötzi’s surroundings, according to a study released October 30, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by James Dickson of the University of Glasgow, UK and colleagues at the University of Innsbruck. 


Ötzi the Iceman is a remarkable 5,300-year-old human specimen found frozen in ice approximately 3,200 meters above sea level in the Italian Alps. He was frozen alongside his clothing and gear as well as an abundant assemblage of plants and fungi. In this study, Dickson and colleagues aimed to identify the mosses and liverworts preserved alongside the Iceman.

Today, 23 bryophyte species live the area near where Ötzi was found, but inside the ice the researchers identified thousands of preserved bryophyte fragments representing at least 75 species. It is the only site of such high altitude with bryophytes preserved over thousands of years. Notably, the assemblage includes a variety of mosses ranging from low-elevation to high-elevation species, as well as 10 species of liverworts, which are very rarely preserved in archaeological sites. Only 30% of the identified bryophytes appear to have been local species, with the rest having been transported to the spot in Ötzi’s gut or clothing or by large mammalian herbivores whose droppings ended up frozen alongside the Iceman.

From these remains, the researchers infer that the bryophyte community in the Alps around 5,000 years ago was generally similar to that of today. Furthermore, the non-local species help to confirm the path Ötzi took to his final resting place. Several of the identified moss species thrive today in the lower Schnalstal valley, suggesting that Ötzi traveled along the valley during his ascent. This conclusion is corroborated by previous pollen research, which also pinpointed Schnalstal as the Iceman’s likely route of ascent.

Dickson adds, “Most members of the public are unlikely to be knowledgeable about bryophytes (mosses and liverworts). However, no fewer than 75 species of these important investigative clues were found when the Iceman (aka Ötzi) was removed from the ice. They were recovered as mostly small scraps from the ice around him, from his clothes and gear, and even from his alimentary tract. Those findings prompted the questions: Where did the fragments come from? How precisely did they get there? How do they help our understanding of the Iceman?”

 

Tuesday, May 1, 2018

A narcissist Generation

Picture from Canva

By Susan Krauss Whitbourne 


You hear it all the time about the millennial generation, or those born between the late 1970s and 2000 —they’re just a bunch of entitled narcissists. Despite the fact that the “me” generation was first identified in the 1970s and referred to the Baby Boomers in Christopher Lasch’s book (The Culture of Narcissism), the millennials are regarded as being even more me-oriented than their parents.
It’s not clear where the narcissism label came from as applied to this entire generation, but the idea certainly has been reinforced in the popular press. The rise of Facebook, selfies, and other social media have certainly contributed to the narcissism attribution as well. Another theory is that millennials were overly pampered and revered as children by parents whose “me-ness” led them to focus on their offspring as reflections on themselves. In any case, the label is sticking and doesn’t show signs of going away.
New research on millennials in the workplace suggests that it is definitely time to drop this misnomer, and particularly, to stop lumping everyone in a single generation into one diagnostic category. University of Scranton’s Robert Giambatista and Texas Tech University’s J. Duane Hoover (2018) decided to challenge the popular wisdom about the millennials in terms of their ability to learn teamwork in the organizational setting. Skeptical of the view that all millennials have the same personalities, they believed that only those individuals high in narcissism would show teamwork problems due to their “dysfunctional and disruptive behaviors” (p. 3). The authors studied narcissism in the non-clinical sense; i.e. as a set of personality traits and not as a diagnosable disorder. In the workplace, people high in this trait should “generally act as self-serving individuals needing to succeed as an individual at all costs, perhaps even to the net costs to the team itself… (and) as unpopular bosses” (p. 4).
High-performing teams, the authors then explain, share a purpose and vision that goes beyond the needs of individuals on those teams. Members are held accountable to each other, and they put forth a collective effort to reach collective ends. They trust one another, meaning that they occasionally have to show their vulnerable sides. None of these qualities should be found, as the authors point out, in people high in narcissism. Furthermore, when they assess their abilities, people high in narcissism have a hard time being objective and deciding on where they need to show room for improvement. These are additional impediments to high performance on a work team.
Giambatista and Hoover tested the idea that people high in narcissism would be poor team players in an innovative study of master’s students taking a behaviorally-based class in organizational behavior (n= 168). The students completed the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI) early in the semester prior to embarking on the course. Its behavioral focus meant that students in the course took place in realistically-designed learning activities in which their ability to work on a team received constant assessment. It was their performance on the teamwork skill assessment that became the outcome variable in the study, with narcissism scores as predictors.  Additionally, the authors developed a behavioral test of narcissism by comparing self-ratings of abilities with actual performance on one of the skill-based assessment exercises.  People high in narcissism, as defined in this manner, should overconfidently rate themselves as better than they actually were.

The findings showed that people high in the entitlement and superiority components of narcissism in fact had higher levels of overconfidence and poorer teamwork skills and that their teamwork performance continued to be deficient over the course of the semester. The other components of the NPI scores had no relationship to teamwork or teamwork skill learning. Thus, the findings for narcissism as a whole were weaker than for the two specific components of entitlement and superiority.  As the authors concluded, “individuals holding the ‘sky is falling’ anxieties about working with millennials and some individuals with narcissistic tendencies may be overly pessimistic” (p. 15). This suggests that even if the form of narcissism a person has is marked by high degrees of entitlement and superiority,  these traits might also live in a personality as a whole that includes other redeeming qualities.
As Giambatista and Hoover suggest, it’s not particularly fun or easy to try to teach teamwork to people who think they’re better than everyone else and deserving of special treatment. These individuals may resist a skill-based approach that assumes they're imperfect and have something they need to learn.  Instead, for these individuals, it might be best to point out how the success of each worker benefits the team as a whole: “Learners who are narcissistic and also sports fans can probably relate to the many examples of professional athletes who have parlayed team success into huge financial gains… even though they were not the star players on their teams” (p. 17).
There are ways, then, to manage people who are high in these two components of narcissism, and to help them become better at cooperating and working toward shared goals. The authors have harsh words for those who engage in “conflating millennials with narcissism,” or assuming that “slightly higher levels of narcissism come with disastrous consequences.” They also point out that the “pernicious portrayal” of millennial narcissists “may contain no small amount of generational ‘old fogeyism’” (p. 17).
To sum up, if you’re one of those in the older generations who look with dismay and fear at your younger colleagues, friends, or family, the present findings suggest that you not give up on them or write them off as pathologically narcissistic.  By all means, identify those whose behavior suggests their opinion of themselves is entirely too high and tailor your training methods accordingly. You don't need to limit this approach to those born at the end of the 20th Century. Millennials aren’t the first generation to include people high in certain aspects of narcissism, and they certainly won’t be the last.


References
Giambatista, R. C., & Hoover, J. D. (2018). Narcissism and teamwork skill acquisition in management education. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, doi:10.1037/mgr0000064



 

Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Ph.D., ABPP, is a Professor Emerita of Psychological and Brain Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. She is also an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Gerontology and Faculty Fellow in the Institute of Gerontology at the University of Massachusetts Boston. The author of over 160 refereed articles and book chapters and 16 books (many in multiple editions and translations), her most recent popular work is The Search for Fulfillment (January 2010, Ballantine Books). She also writes for the Huffington Post's "Post 50" blog and is a frequent commentator on local, national, and international media outlets and has appeared on the Today Show, NBC Nightly News, Dateline, CNN, Olbermann, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Money Magazine, USA Today, and Time.com.

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

The costs of camouflaging autism

Illustration by Alessandra Genualdo 


 Many girls hide their autism, sometimes evading diagnosis 
well into adulthood. These efforts can help women 
on the spectrum socially and professionally, 
but they can also do serious harm.



by
 
Except for her family and closest friends, no one in Jennifer’s various circles knows that she is on the spectrum. Jennifer was not diagnosed with autism until she was 45 — and then only because she wanted confirmation of what she had figured out for herself over the previous decade. Most of her life, she says, she evaded a diagnosis by forcing herself to stop doing things her parents and others found strange or unacceptable. (For privacy reasons, Jennifer asked that we not use her last name.)
Over several weeks of emailing back and forth, Jennifer confides in me some of the tricks she uses to mask her autism — for example, staring at the spot between someone’s eyes instead of into their eyes, which makes her uncomfortable. But when we speak for the first time over video chat one Friday afternoon in January, I cannot pick up on any of these ploys.
She confesses to being anxious. “I didn’t put on my interview face,” she says. But her nervousness, too, is hidden — at least until she tells me that she is tapping her foot off camera and biting down on the chewing gum in her mouth. The only possible ‘tell’ I notice is that she gathers up hanks of her shoulder-length brown hair, pulls them back from her face and then lets them drop — over and over again.
In the course of more than an hour, Jennifer, a 48-year-old writer, describes the intense social and communication difficulties she experiences almost daily. She can express herself easily in writing, she says, but becomes disoriented during face-to-face communication. “The immediacy of the interaction messes with my processing,” she says.
“Am I making any sense at all?” she suddenly bursts out. She is, but often fears she is not.
To compensate, Jennifer says she practices how to act. Before attending a birthday party with her son, for example, she prepares herself to be “on,” correcting her posture and habitual fidgeting. She demonstrates for me how she sits up straight and becomes still. Her face takes on a pleasant and engaged expression, one she might adopt during conversation with another parent. To keep a dialogue going, she might drop in a few well-rehearsed catchphrases, such as “good grief” or “go big or go home.” “I feel if I do the nods, they won’t feel I’m uninterested,” she says.
Over the past few years, scientists have discovered that, like Jennifer, many women on the spectrum ‘camouflage’ the signs of their autism. This masking may explain at least in part why three to four times as many boys as girls are diagnosed with the condition. It might also account for why girls diagnosed young tend to show severe traits, and highly intelligent girls are often diagnosed late. (Men on the spectrum also camouflage, researchers have found, but not as commonly as women.)
Nearly everyone makes small adjustments to fit in better or conform to social norms, but camouflaging calls for constant and elaborate effort. It can help women with autism maintain their relationships and careers, but those gains often come at a heavy cost, including physical exhaustion and extreme anxiety.
Camouflaging is often about a desperate and sometimes subconscious survival battle,” says Kajsa Igelström, assistant professor of neuroscience at Linköping University in Sweden. “And this is an important point, I think — that camouflaging often develops as a natural adaptation strategy to navigate reality,” she says. “For many women, it’s not until they get properly diagnosed, recognized and accepted that they can fully map out who they are.”
Even so, not all women who camouflage say they would have wanted to know about their autism earlier — and researchers acknowledge that the issue is fraught with complexities. Receiving a formal diagnosis often helps women understand themselves better and tap greater support, but some women say it comes with its own burdens, such as a stigmatizing label and lower expectations for achievement.