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Paying Parents to Read to Their Children Boosts Literacy Skills

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COLUMBUS, Ohio – Researchers have found a surprising way to help boost the skills of children with language impairment: Pay their parents to read to them.  A new study tested four techniques to get parents or other caregivers to complete a 15-week literacy intervention for their children with language impairment.  Only one of those techniques – paying parents 50 cents for each reading session – led to children showing significant gains in reading test scores, findings showed.  “We were somewhat stunned to find that paying parents had this strong effect. We didn’t anticipate this,” said Laura Justice, lead author of the study and professor of educational psychology at The Ohio State University.  The other three techniques tried in the study were offering positive feedback to the parents, offering encouragement, and modeling to parents how to read in a way that improved children’s literacy skills.  None of these three was helpful, and offering feedback actually had a slight…

Igor' Fëdorovič Stravinskij


By F Guzzardi

In his book Philosophy of Modern Music ( 1948) , Theodor Adorno defines Stravinsky an acrobat , a civil servant, a dressmaker's dummy , psychotic , childish, fascist , and devoted only to money. The errors of the composer, in the opinion of Adorno , was his neoclassicism , but more important was "the pseudomorfismo of painting " in his music, which reproduced the space time rather than the time duration of Henri Bergson . " One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors : the effort of his music to portray time as in a painting of the circus and to present time complexes as though they were spatial . This deception , however, soon runs out ." (1948)
There were no other considerations that did not take account of the talent of the artist but rather the character that could not like it in some aspects, but who left traces in modern music , perceptible in many contemporary compositions .

File:Stravinsky Igor Postcard-1910.jpg 
Biography 

Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov ) , near Saint Petersburg , Russia in 1882. Growing up in an apartment and dominated by his father and elder brother , his childhood was the farthest thing from the artist who would later become cosmopolitan . Although his father, Fyodor Stravinsky Ignatyich , it was a low Mariinsky Theatre , Igor originally devoted himself to the study of jurisprudence : the composition came later. In 1902 , 20 years old, he became the pupil of Rimsky -Korsakov , probably the greatest Russian composer of the time.
He left Russia for the first time in 1910 , heading to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'Oiseau de feu . During his stay , he wrote three important works for the Ballets Russes : The Firebird , Petrushka and The Rite of Spring ( Le sacre du printemps ) . From these ballets can understand his stylistic journey , from The Firebird , whose style approaches still to Rimsky -Korsakov, the bitonality of Petrushka , the polyphonic dissonance and wild Rite of Spring . As he himself said, in these first his intention was to send the public " in that country." And he succeeded : the premiere of the festival in 1913 turned into a riot.

Orchestral innovations

The period between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century was a time of overflowing orchestral innovations . Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skills in writing for this medium. In turn, were influenced by the expansion of the orchestra traditional classic by Richard Wagner which promoted the use of large numbers of instruments , often unusual types .Stravinsky continued this trend romantic writing for orchestras huge , especially in his early ballets . But it was when he began to move away from this path that began to innovate with the introduction of unusual combinations of instruments. For example, in L' Histoire du Soldat used instruments are clarinet, bassoon , trombone (bass and tenor) , trumpet, violin, double bass and percussion, along with a somewhat surprising for that period (1918). Everything will become almost a stereotype in the music of the post-war period .Another change of note is attributable in part to the exploitation of Stravinsky sounds extreme reach of the musical instruments. The most famous passage in this field is the overture of Le Sacre du Printemps , where the composer uses the extreme notes of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic awakening of a spring morning .It should also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and the aforementioned Schoenberg had already explored some of these techniques and orchestral music in the early twentieth century, although their influence on later generations of musicians was equaled , if not exceeded, from that of Stravinsky .


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