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Paying Parents to Read to Their Children Boosts Literacy Skills

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COLUMBUS, Ohio – Researchers have found a surprising way to help boost the skills of children with language impairment: Pay their parents to read to them.  A new study tested four techniques to get parents or other caregivers to complete a 15-week literacy intervention for their children with language impairment.  Only one of those techniques – paying parents 50 cents for each reading session – led to children showing significant gains in reading test scores, findings showed.  “We were somewhat stunned to find that paying parents had this strong effect. We didn’t anticipate this,” said Laura Justice, lead author of the study and professor of educational psychology at The Ohio State University.  The other three techniques tried in the study were offering positive feedback to the parents, offering encouragement, and modeling to parents how to read in a way that improved children’s literacy skills.  None of these three was helpful, and offering feedback actually had a slight…

New campaign aims for international cooperation to protect sentinel species



WASHINGTON, April 22, 2014 /-- Penguin lovers around the world will unite to observe World Penguin Day on April 25th, and The Pew Charitable Trusts is joining the celebration by announcing the launch of the first global effort aimed at protecting penguins wherever they live.
Eighteen species of penguin range from the cold of Antarctica to the equatorial heat of the Galapagos Islands. Interference from humans in the form of pollution, habitat degradation, introduced predators, and overfishing is affecting the health of penguins. Climate change, which melts and shifts sea ice, adds to the challenges facing these birds. Most species are in decline, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
"Penguin protection is critical, not just for these iconic species, but for entire ocean ecosystems," said Andrea Kavanagh, director of Pew's global penguin conservation and Southern Ocean work. "Penguins are sentinels of ocean health, and changes to their populations can indicate trouble for other species that depend on a robust food web."
Pew will work to restore and protect breeding and feeding grounds in the coastal waters of countries throughout the Southern Hemisphere, as well as advocate to establish large, no-take marine reserves in Antarctica's Southern Ocean.
As a member of the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, Pew is actively engaged in the effort to establish large-scale marine protections in the Southern Ocean. Although reserves do not mitigate the impacts of climate change, they help species such as penguins build resilience, abundance and diversity, and provide refuge from increased fishing pressures.
 The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, or CCAMLR, is the consensus-based international body charged with governing these waters. Comprised of 24 member countries and the European Union, the commission is considering proposals for marine reserves in the Ross Sea and waters off East Antarctica. At this October's annual meeting, CCAMLR will debate the proposals for the fourth time. Pew hopes that this year, decisions will be made.
"The Antarctic Treaty was signed at the height of the Cold War to protect the entire continent. Now it's the Southern Ocean's turn for an international conservation commitment," said Kavanagh. "We all depend on a healthy ocean for survival. Today's political differences should not stand in the way of protecting penguins and vulnerable sea life."
Notes to editors:
The Antarctic Treaty was signed in December 1959 by Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It entered into force in 1961 and emphasizes Antarctica as a place of peace and for shared scientific research.
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, or CCAMLR, was established in 1982 to conserve marine life. The commission's Conservation Measure 91-04 provides a framework for the establishment of marine protected areas. Learn more: http://archive.ccamlr.org/pu/E/e_pubs/cm/11-12/91-04.pdf.
For more information on Pew's global penguin conservation work, including video, an interactive map of penguin species, and ways to take action, visit www.pewenvironment.org/penguins.
To learn more about Pew's work on Southern Ocean issues and at CCAMLR, visit www.pewenvironment.org/SouthernOcean.
The Pew Charitable Trusts is driven by the power of knowledge to solve today's most challenging problems. Learn more at www.pewtrusts.org
CONTACT: Leah Weiser, 202-540-6304, lweiser@pewtrusts.org

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