Thursday, November 27, 2014

The relationship with a borderline subject

These texts are extracted from the new book coming out in the early months of 2015 / "Forever alone" and talks about  the problem of borderline and the consequences on people close to the BPD (borderline personality disorder).
 

by F Guzzardi (all rights reserved)

A person who comes into close contact with a BPD in the time is subject to a variety of manipulative behavior. Normally the BPD implements sophisticated manipulation techniques to be substituted and declined of any responsibilities of life. In short, people BPD put their entire lives in your hand and then  punish or blame you violently if something is wrong.

It is a very complex personality who learned these tactics manipulative probably even in childhood or youth and long to go put them into practice in relation to other people  automatically, without   scruple or doubt about what they are doing.  It's very important to understand that people borderline, because of the techniques learned in the past, they behave in a certain way or are prone to manipulation of a non-BPD without malice or desire to implement what they are doing. Wickedness, in psychology, is wanted and premeditated act by which a person wants to do harm to another.

Typical features of BPD:

The performance of automatic behavior similar to some situation that has already taken place earlier, such as the repetition of phrases seductive, the use of your own emotional state, of seduction techniques very convincing or in arousing compassion in people especially of the opposite sex, more or less consciously echoing a script (hence the "states" or "dramatic personality") already tried and tested successfully in the past.


The BPD have a strong ability to understand the fly and to understand the crowd (work colleagues, various situations) which is the most suitable person to "hook up" and take hold emotionally.

Establish emotional relationships superficial and silly, that last very little and tend to put themselves in the hands of the other to a strong need for protection and need, not because they have feelings high (such as love or friendship in a broad sense).

 Tend to idealize the person who takes care of them: the status of the non-BPD, first seen as a "savior" (or involved in a variety of roles: lover, friend, father sostitutitivo, etc.) Changes from "benefactor" in person "evil" in a short time and at the very moment in which the other does not pay due attention and immediate.

They have a lack of empathy towards others - that is, they are not able to understand that the other should or can express needs, which can be committed and do not listen, you may suffer because of personal problems.


Absolutely do not recognize the existence of other people: the others are seen as individuals who tend to fill the lack of self-esteem of the patient BPD as "containers" of self-esteem: they are the people who are next to the BPD to give meaning to his life.

Lacking the BPD of a precise identity, it tries to find it in the other, in the values and things of others and as a result ...

The tendency is to get more attention from them. When you obtained this attention that must be continuous and constant over time (while they, the BPD are not able to provide it in the same way) are formed very close relationships and governed exclusively by strict rules imposed by the BPD.

The process of encapsulation
 
The process of "encapsulation" of the other. Notoriously BPD (and even the ordinary people who are manipulative) behave so groped to isolate the person with whom they are in contact with subtle manipulative techniques. May induce non-BPD  to believe what he hears from third parties about the borderline experience, not to believe what is reported, to threaten to terminate the relationship if the "truth" of BPD is not accepted .

The BPD usually makes use of lies, omissions in the stories, half-truths, etc. to be persuasive with the non-BPD.

All of these behaviors make it increasingly stormy interpersonal relationships, generate conflicts in the workplace, with friends, acquaintances, relatives. The BPD is not understood as a disturbed because apparently has a behavior that mimics the normal.
The BPD feels no real affection towards others, even if outside them with extreme conviction, such as a BPD can hold photos of their non-BPD bedside and watch the evening, before going to sleep, in the same way with which a child hugs him a teddy bear stuffed to feel protected.
The new relationships are established by the BPD to create art through the lament, victimhood, etc., To grip on new friends or lovers that rise to a role in "saving" or defender, until they understand well the disease.
Often the BPD that are dipedenti by non-BPD, will resort to new friendships or loves to replace people who leave. Always remember that the BPD "when the codependent (non-BPD) is gone, someone else will shine in front of their eyes" - you are not in fact non-BPD nor useful, unique or essential to the BPD - can be replaced in any time, despite the BPD makes you believe that you are "the best friends, the people to whom it wants best, the most popular and unique in the world."

They accuse the ex-husbands, ex-lovers or ex-friends of inventing false charges. The phenomenon is known in the United States where some children with BPD have turned to the help lines (such as those of our helpline) accusing the parents of abuse never happened.

The BPD in the phenomenon of projection can accuse the non-BPD to be suffering from disorder BPD.


The BPD will admit to being affected by the disorder to elicit pain and compassion in the non-BPD in order not to be aborted or to subdue the non-BPD to their will.

Demonstration of competence; lack of continuity in the time-BPD do not suffer due to a disturbance intellectual, but emotional. The demonstration about their skills (eg at work, study etc.) Continually misleads others. The person may try to implement something just to show others that it is healthy. However, lacks continuity in time; everything has so cyclical.

Sometimes the BPD can overload a non BPD of tasks, and when these solves some problems, then gets offended because he did it; then can try to fend for himself, with more or less scarce in the discharge of their duties, and then repeat this cycle.


These aspects and behaviors of BPD can arouse many doubts in those who have never known a person with BPD, or even disbelief. Speaking of normal people or non-BPD we are all led to believe that a person of this type does not exist and that in it (also due to a cooling of religious and denial of the disease, perpetrated for years in Italy) exist traits normal or rather "a fund of goodness" such as to believe that anyone could exist a love relationship or friendship. In reality, these traits are: you notice a periodic resurfacing of some good feeling, such as the fact that BPD may at some time be generous, grateful, grateful, etc. Unfortunately these events are continually shaken by the disturbance, are rare and are not objectively and easily assessable if manipulators or less. Actually in BPD lacks a continuity of sentiment and affection such as to set up a real and stable friendship or a love relationship.
 


Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Homosexual experiences in Borderline Personality




According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, various forms of impulsivity are associated with borderline personality disorder, including sexual impulsivity. The existing empirical literature indicates that patients with borderline personality disorder appear to differ from patients without this personality disorder in a number of relevant ways. Specifically, those with borderline personality disorder are more likely to exhibit greater sexual preoccupation, have earlier sexual exposure, engage in casual sexual relationships, report a greater number of different sexual partners as well as promiscuity, and engage in homosexual experiences. In addition, patients with borderline personality disorder appear to be characterized by a greater number of high-risk sexual behaviors; a higher likelihood of having been coerced to have sex, experiencing date rape, or being raped by a stranger; and the contraction of more sexually transmitted diseases. Overall, the psychological themes relating to sexual behavior in borderline personality disorder appear to be characterized by impulsivity and victimization. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for clinicians in mental health and primary care settings.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an Axis II phenomenon that is characterized by intrinsic impulsivity. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, impulsivity may manifest in a variety of life areas, including sexual behavior, spending behavior, substance usage, driving, and eating.1 In this edition of The Interface, we review the literature with regard to sexual behavior in BPD to gain a broader sense of the sexual patterns that might be encountered in these types of patients. We then discuss the potential implications of these findings in terms of psychiatric and primary care settings.

The Literature on Sexual Behavior in BPD

There are a number of reports in the literature that describe sexual behavior in individuals with BPD. These reports consist of clinical impressions, case reports, and empirical investigations.
Clinical impressions. In the early literature, Hoch and Polatin  described a group of patients who would likely be diagnosed with BPD according to contemporary approaches. With regard to this cohort, these authors emphasized the phenomenon of “pan-sexuality” (i.e., all-embracing sexuality), which encompassed promiscuity, “polymorphous perverse sexual practices,” and heterosexual/homosexual vacillation. 
Another authority in the field of BPD, indicated that more than 25 percent of his outpatients with this Axis II disorder exhibited promiscuity. In contrast, Stone reported that promiscuity was uncommon among his non-BPD clientele.
In discussing the issue of sexual relationships between the therapist and the patient, Gutheil commented that patients with BPD are particularly prone to evoke boundary violations. As an example, he underscored sexual acting out.
Case reports. In addition to authoritative clinical impressions, there are several case reports in the literature on the sexual behavior of patients with BPD. For example, Pelsser described a female BPD patient in her 20s who suffered from promiscuity. Likewise, O'Boyle described the collective sexual experiences of four patients with BPD and portrayed their self-reported promiscuity as a means of coping.
Empirical studies. In addition to authoritative impressions and case reports, there are a number of empirical studies on sexual behavior in BPD. For example, in an empirical endeavor that was designed to explore sexual attitudes, Hurlbert, Apt, and White compared 32 women with BPD to 32 women without personality disorders. In this study, the authors found that women with BPD evidenced greater sexual assertiveness, erotophilic attitudes, sexual esteem, sexual preoccupation, and sexual dissatisfaction.
Miller compared 52 substance-using individuals with BPD to 40 non-substance-using individuals with BPD. In addition to poor academic performance and unemployment, the substance-using group was significantly highlighted by promiscuity.
Hull  examined 71 hospitalized female patients who were diagnosed with BPD. These investigators found that 46 percent of the participants in this study impulsively entered into sexual relationships with partners that they did not know very well (i.e., they engaged in casual sexual relationships).
In a dissertation thesis, Allan examined 71 medical patients with regard to various sexual behaviors. In preparation for analyses, she divided participants into two groups according to their history of sexual risk—high-risk versus low-risk. Participants in the high-risk subsample differed from those in the low-risk subsample in having a greater prevalence of BPD.
Lavan and Johnson explored relationships between personality pathology and high-risk sexual behaviors among 403 teens. In this sample, the authors asked participants about the number of sexual partners during the past year and their lifetime, as well as the use (or not) of condoms. Condom non-usage was defined as “high-risk sexual behavior.” In this study, after controlling for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and overall levels of personality disorder symptoms, BPD symptoms were independently associated with high-risk sexual behavior.
Chen et al compared women with BPD both with and without substance abuse with regard to the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. In this study, participants with substance abuse reported significantly more sexually transmitted diseases, particularly gonorrhea, trichomonas, and human papillomavirus (HPV). This finding was, in part, mediated by recent unprotected sex with two or more partners and more than 20 lifetime sexual partners.
Finally, in a literature review that was based upon six empirical studies, Neeleman concluded that patients with BPD exhibit heightened sexual impulsivity as well as a vulnerability to homosexual experiences. Further details of this analysis are unavailable because the original article is written in Dutch.
Collectively, these preceding studies indicate that individuals with BPD may harbor greater sexual preoccupation, engage in more high-risk sexual behaviors, experience more casual sexual relationships and more sexual partners, contract more sexually transmitted diseases, and be more likely to experiment with homosexual activities. The overall theme among patients with BPD is greater sexual impulsivity.
Empirical studies by Sansone et al. We have also studied the relationship between BPD and various sexual behaviors. In a 2008 study, we examined 76 women outpatients in an internal medicine clinic regarding their sexual histories (e.g., age of first intercourse, number of different lifetime sexual partners, homosexual experiences, history of rape). Using self-report measures for BPD, we found two statistically significant relationships in this study—individuals with BPD reported earlier sexual experiences as well as a greater likelihood of date rape.
In a 2009 study, we analyzed a compilation of 12 of our previous databases (N= 972) of both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric patients who were diagnosed with or without BPD according to a self-report measure. We examined these databases with regard to two sexual variables: 1) casual sexual relationships (e.g., “I have done things on impulse that can get me into trouble…[such as] having sex with people I hardly know”) and 2) promiscuity (e.g., “Have you ever intentionally, or on purpose,…been promiscuous [i.e., had many sexual partners]?”). In this study, we found that participants with BPD were twice as likely to endorse casual sexual relationships as well as promiscuity, regardless of clinical setting.
In a third study, we examined a consecutive sample of 354 internal medicine outpatients. Using either of two self-report measures for BPD, participants with this Axis II disorder reported approximately twice the number of different sexual partners compared to those without BPD.
In a final study on the relationship between BPD and sexual behavior, using two self-report measures for BPD, we examined a cohort of 126 psychiatric inpatients. Compared to those without BPD (i.e., participants who did not score above the cut-off on two measures of BPD), those with BPD (i.e., participants who scored above the cut-off on both measures of BPD) were significantly more likely to report a greater number of sexual partners, having been raped by a stranger, and having been coerced to have sex. There were no between-group differences with regard to age at menarche, age of first intercourse, total number of times treated for a sexually transmitted disease, having experienced date rape or rape by a partner, or having had homosexual experiences.
The preceding empirical findings are summarized in . Note that most, if not all, of the behaviors that are empirically identified as more frequent in BPD fall into the psychological categories of impulsivity and/or victimization. Generally, impulsivity appears to be represented by greater sexual preoccupation, earlier sexual exposure, more casual sexual relationships, a greater number of different sexual partners, promiscuity, and homosexual experiences, whereas victimization appears to be represented by a greater number of high-risk sexual behaviors; a greater likelihood of being coerced to have sex, date rape, and/or rape by a stranger; and a higher number of sexually transmitted diseases.

Conclusion

The majority of the literature in this area suggests that in comparison with individuals without BPD, those with BPD evidence greater sexual impulsivity as indicated by higher levels of sexual preoccupation, earlier sexual exposure, more casual sexual relationships, a greater number of different sexual partners, promiscuity, and homosexual experiences. In addition, these patients evidence greater victimization as indicated by a higher number of high-risk sexual behaviors; greater likelihood of being coerced to have sex, date rape, or rape by a stranger; and more sexually transmitted diseases. Note that both of these themes, impulsivity and victimization, characterize the psychological themes encountered in a number of other common behaviors in BPD (e.g., alcohol and substance misuse/abuse, eating pathology, difficulty regulating money). From a psychiatric perspective, these findings suggest that sexual impulsivity and victimization are practical clinical concerns in patients with BPD, both in terms of relevant psychological themes as well as health risks. From a primary care perspective, findings suggest that clinicians in these settings need to maintain a high index of suspicion about the possibility of multiple sexual partners, sexual traumatization, and sexually transmitted diseases in these patients as well as the need to address contraception and prophylaxis against sexually transmitted diseases. Likewise, patients who present with promiscuity in primary care settings may need to be evaluated for BPD and possibly referred for treatment to a mental health professional.
In summary, the psychodynamic theme of impulsivity, as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, appears to be a legitimate sub-criterion in many patients with BPD. What seems to be missing in the current descriptors is the undertone of victimization that also characterizes the sexual behavior of these patients.


Contributor Information

Randy A. Sansone, Dr. R. Sansone is a professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Internal Medicine at Wright State University School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio, and Director of Psychiatry Education at Kettering Medical Center in Kettering, Ohio.
Lori A. Sansone, Dr. L. Sansone is a family medicine physician (civilian) and Medical Director, Family Health Clinical, Wright-Patterson Medical Center in WPAFB, Ohio. The views and opinions expressed in this column are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or the position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or US government.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Are entrepreneurs born or made?


Starting a Business Sparks Self-Fulfillment and Freedom for Americans

2014 Amway Global Entrepreneurship Report Reveals US Attitudes Towards Self-Employment

 


Are entrepreneurs born or made? And what drives them to start their own businesses? These concepts were posed by the 2014 Amway Global Entrepreneurship Report (AGER), a survey that takes the public pulse on the state of self-employment around the world. This year’s report explored entrepreneurship education.
At a resounding 68%, Americans reported that they believe entrepreneurship can be taught – 5% higher than global findings. Those under 35 years old held the strongest beliefs (74%), while men and women were of the same opinion, at 68% and 67% respectively.
When ranking the reasons to choose entrepreneurship, 60% of Americans identified “self-fulfillment, possibility to realize own ideas,” 59% said “independence from an employer, being my own boss” and 54% reported “better compatibility of family, leisure time and career.” These findings were consistent with the worldwide average, though the order of importance for Americans was reversed. When factoring in age, the youngest respondents again were most supportive, at 70%, 66% and 69% respectively.
“Americans are strongly motivated by their desire to pursue and implement their own ideas,” remarks Dr. David B. Audretsch, professor and director of the Institute for Development Strategies at the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs. “Self-fulfillment is a motivating force that’s consistent with positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and the belief that entrepreneurship can be taught.”
Unique in its broadness and regularity, the AGER fosters global discussion on entrepreneurship, as well as raises awareness of the significant role entrepreneurs play in modern economies. The groundbreaking first survey launched in 2010 as the Amway European Entrepreneurship Report, then expanded worldwide with the 2013 AGER, which encompassed 24 countries including the United States. The 2014 AGER spans a record 38 markets and more than 43,000 people aged 14-99.
“Our involvement in the AGER elevates the entrepreneurial spirit in our market and around the world,” notes Jim Ayres, Managing Director of Amway North America. “The findings help inform the modernization of the Amway business, so we can ultimately better enable the success of our Independent Business Owners and their prospects.”
Additional key findings from the United States include:
Education is everything: Success in business was linked to success in the classroom. Americans rated the most crucial aspects of entrepreneurship education as “leadership and management skills” (47%) and “basic business skills” (39%). These were consistent worldwide, but in reverse order. At 46%, universities were the classrooms of choice, and six out of ten (61%) found their education options satisfactory – significantly more than the global average (43%). Yet 44% of Americans admitted the need for improvement.
Positivity prevails: 62% of Americans held positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship, a 6% increase from last year. Respondents aged 35-49 showed the most positivity, at 75%, along with university graduates, at 73%. Men and women were nearly equally positive, at 63% and 61%, and Hispanics were the most positive ethnicity, at 71%.
Falling friendliness: When asked if the United States was an entrepreneurship-friendly society, just 60% answered “yes”, in sharp contrast to last year’s 73%. “This decline is a striking revelation,” adds Audretsch. “It’s an insight that uncovers an important area of concern that needs more discussion.”
The 2014 AGER was conducted by Amway, in partnership with the Chair of Strategy and Organization of the School of Management, Technische Universit√§t M√ľnchen in Munich, Germany. Fieldwork was completed by the Gesellschaft fuer Konsumforschung Nuremberg from April through July. Results are shared with the scientific community, including the 38 AGER academic advisors and all interested think tanks and academic and public institutions. For more information about the global findings of AGER 2014, please visit the Amway newsroom or go to AmwayEntrepreneurshipReport.com.
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About Amway
Amway/Alticor is the world’s #1 direct selling business, as ranked by 2013 global sales of $11.8 billion, according to the Direct Selling News Global 100. Top-selling Amway brands and products are Nutrilite vitamin, mineral and dietary supplements, Artistry skincare and color cosmetics, and eSpring water treatment systems – all sold exclusively by Amway Independent Business Owners. For more company news, visit globalnews.amway.com.
Contact:
Larissa Malone
Amway North America Public Relations
616.787.6217
larissa.malone@amway.com

Monday, November 17, 2014

Where in the World is Innovation in Transportation?

BASKING RIDGE, N.J., Nov. 14, 2014 / Verizon knows that innovative ideas can come from anywhere. Our 2014 Powerful Answers Award (PAA) received thousands of entries from around the globe – each one vying for the chance to win a $1 million prize and an opportunity to change the world through innovations in education, transportation, sustainability and healthcare. Out of more than 1,870 submissions, ten inspiring finalists were chosen in the Transportation category. Here are some of the facts and figures:
 
Each of the Transportation finalists presented their ideas to a panel of expert judges for a chance to win $1 million and work with Verizon to turn their idea into a reality. Follow their journey and stay tuned for the big winner reveal in late January. Who will take the top prize?
Logistics
  • Impaqd: A mobile-enabled efficiency and cost-savings solution for the trucking industry that leverages location-based load-matching.
  • Vaxess Technologies: A new technology designed to extend the global reach and access to vaccine products and expand the market for companies that produce them.
  • Matternet: A flexible, automatic logistics and distribution network that uses small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to leapfrog roads and connect anyone.
  • Mobot: A smart, autonomous solution to truck loading that allows for more efficient, reliable and safer operations.
Smarter Driving
  • Fastree3D: A single, low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) system that enables vehicles and machines to recognize and locate fast-moving, three-dimensional objects in real-time, enabling deliberate, intelligent driving assistance or autonomous navigation.
  • RPark: An electronically managed parking payments system designed to help decrease travel time, relieve congestion, streamline public transportation and address pollution.
  • SmartRail: An intelligent solution for the U.S. railroad network that uses wireless sensor devices to monitor and track the health of rails, trains and more.
Urban Solutions
  • PayBySky: A parking management solution that uses real-time intelligence to modify driver behavior and help address congestion, pollution and general "livability" in urban environments.
  • Scipopulis: A real-time transportation information system that empowers citizens with information to effectively plan their daily commute.
  • HopOn: Technology designed to change the public transportation check-in and ticketing experience to help make it more efficient and enjoyable.
Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE, Nasdaq: VZ), headquartered in New York, is a global leader in delivering broadband and other wireless and wireline communications services to consumer, business, government and wholesale customers. Verizon Wireless operates America's most reliable wireless network, with more than 106 million retail connections nationwide. Verizon also provides converged communications, information and entertainment services over America's most advanced fiber-optic network, and delivers integrated business solutions to customers in more than 150 countries. A Dow 30 company with more than $120 billion in 2013 revenues, Verizon employs a diverse workforce of 178,500. For more information, visit www.verizon.com/news/.
SOURCE Verizon Wireless


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